Some sidelining and annotation to text. Selling for Oxfam! Size: 8vo - Square. Bookseller Inventory Ask Seller a Question. About this title Synopsis: This book deals with a wide range of techniques used in the urban design process. Store Description Oxfam Bookshop.
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More Information. Shipping Terms: Orders usually shipped within 2 business days. Payment Methods accepted by seller PayPal. Add to Wants. Designers, who were also builders and manufacturers, commonly worked by making an endless series of evolutionary adaptations. The etymology of manufacture 'made by hand' reminds us of this history.
It was a 'dirty hands' approach and craftsmen did not have an academic training. Le Notre was unusual in that he attended an art school in Paris. Capability Brown, like most pre, garden designers learned their trade as apprentices in gardens. They learned to dig and plant before they learned to design and draw. James Watt employed this method in the design of steam engines and was excluded from the craft guild, despite his great manual skill. His peers did not see that a man with clean hands could be a 'master' of his trade.
At a later date it became accepted that the producers of 'master' plans required clean hands, and that their drawings would be sent for fabrication by less educated people with dirty hands. We still speak of 'master bakers' and 'master brewers' and most professions require a 'masters degree', conferred by universities on clean-handed scholars. In the built environment professions this led to the production of 'master plans'.
In engineering terms, a master plan is an assembly drawing which explains how components are put together. In the landscape, planning and architecture professions it is a long term development plan, perhaps for a university campus or a new town. Many architects, and some garden designers, served apprenticeships in design offices - not on construction sites.
It was a partial truth. Form is also consequent upon beliefs, technology, social structures and design methods. In the last century, when architecture began to extend its concern beyond 'churches and mansions', modernist designers sought to learn from industrial techniques. They hoped to find a new social relevance, to become masters of the built environment and to produce 'machines for living'. Their drawing-board based design method contributed to the blankness of totalitarian modernism. Jane Jacobs, Charles Jencks and Prince Charles have criticized the results of this approach with regard to planning and architecture.
Its consequences for landscape design and planning have received less attention but are even more disturbing. Ugly buildings affect the eye of the beholder. Badly planned and designed landscapes affect the sustainability of urban life. The twentieth century produced too many landscapes with no regard for history, craftsmanship, ecology or the ways in which humans interact with outdoor space.
Each decade of the second half of the twentieth century produced blank 'concrete deserts' which can be espied from Greenwich Park: the South Bank s , the Barbican s , South Thamesmead s , the Isle of Dogs s and the Greenwich Peninsula s. All these places have been 'master planned', admittedly with diminishing enthusiasm, and no one who visits them can wish the procedure to be repeated.
Historic Greenwich is an island of pre quality in a mudgy sea of urban sprawl. It is no coincidence that these projects were the result of a pseudo-scientific, clean-hands, drawing-board-rooted design method. One conducted a semi-scientific Survey; one analysed the results usually on drawings with jagged lines and arrows ; then one performed a creative leap and produced a design.
More often than not the design had little relationship to the survey and analysis. The method was not a success. Post design methods According to Charles Jencks' joke-date, the post-modern era began at 3. Pruitt-Igoe, which might have been detonated at that moment, was an award-winning example of totalitarian modernism. New architectural styles have developed since then. But there have been few related developments in master planning or landscape architecture. Unaware of being dressed in the concrete jacket of modernism, practitioners have been unable to move forward.
The s business parks, retail parks and housing estates within sight of Greenwich Park show post-modern architecture in a modernist structure of geometrical roads, lawns, shrub beds, and underground drainage pipes.
Technique of SWOT analysis - Strategic Planning Method | PlanningTank
If one travels to Paris one can find examples of architectural post-modernism applied to park design, but not examples of un-master-planned, post-modern, post-industrial environments. Parc de la Villette is a significant example. Bernard Tschumi made much of his structuralist, deconstructed, layered, approach. But the layers are abstract constructivist geometry. They are one of the most participatory methods according to Robert Chambers, They change the perspective of the researcher, who acts only as an observant.
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Researchers or development experts often have very limited knowledge of local practices and customs. The walk ideally results in a mutual interchange of knowledge between researchers and locals. The very visual focus of the exercise inspires a deep understanding of different concerns.
Finding a common language during the walk is one of the most valuable aspect of this method. Transect walks can involve everyone, including residents with limited English and business owners lacking the time to attend community meetings. Experts require a successful participatory technique to be simple, practical and flexible as well as under shared control. Transect walks fulfil all of these requirements. Despite its simplicity, the method holds some problems.
As in so many participatory processes, it might be challenging to find representatives from all parts of a community. Depending on the time of the day, the season and events like school holidays, the transect walk only shows a very specific time and situation. Based on my own experience, I learned that ethical issues like how to guarantee the safety of participants can arise. Community members want external experts to have a good impression of their neighbourhood and might hide some of its uglier sides.
http://www.graphicprep.com/components/river/chat-casados-infieles.php There can be a bias in interviews of neighbours. Another method-related criticism is the lack of exchange between different groups.
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It would be interesting to let several groups do the same transect walk and compare their experience. Additionally, a transect walk requires time, willingness and motivation. Therefore, it is not adequate for the solution of pressing problems.